In addition to 'normal' end-rhyme, medieval lyric poets also establish rhyme at the end of a line verse by using words in which repetition is not carried by the end of the word, but by its stem. In this system of grammatical rhyme a pair or series of words has different endings resulting from conjugation, declension or change of gender (e.g. prisen:prijs, sisen:sijs, wijs:wisen). Usually the endings of the rhyming pairs are unequal in the number of articulated sounds, differing by a letter or a syllable. These pairs may be constituted by a variety of word categories: two (or more) verbs or nouns, a noun and a verb, a noun and an adverb, etc., or even a combination of homonyms. A survey of occurrences of this type of rhyme in Middle Dutch lyrics shows that poets used this form throughout the entire period. However, there are differences in the frequency it was used at various times, and authors themselves do vary in the use of it in their own work. Grammatical rhyme pairs can be found in several patterns at the end of lines; among rhetoricians from the later Middle Ages they may also be found within lines.
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